A 90 mile walk across the glorious high country of the Yorkshire Dales
A Dales High Way Walk: a 90 mile walk across the glorious high country of the Yorkshire Dales

A Dales High Way

News Archive Jan-June 2009

June 2009

A Tale of Two Festivals

The eighth Dent Folk Festival got under way on Friday, in a field just outside Sedbergh. Meanwhile the first Dentdale Music and Beer Festival got underway, in Dent.

Dentdale Music and Beer Festival

The Dentdale Festival site on Saturday
afternoon (Above).
Andy Irving plays at the Dent Festival on
Friday night (below)

Andy Irving plays at the Dent Folk Festival

Confused? Some of those who turned up certainly were, unsure which festival they were at. But it all ended well as both events looked to be resounding successes, with the scorching June sunshine emerging just on cue. Plenty of people and a few performers ended up travelling to and fro between the two festivals.

The Dent Folk Festival has gained a deserved excellent reputation on the folk circuit. But it's growing success led organisers to look for a new venue.

"In a nutshell we have outgrown our original site in Dentdale and although we are very sad to leave we didn't really have much choice if the festival was to continue. So we are moving to an absolutely stunning setting at Buck Bank Farm under the Howgill Fells near Sedbergh, Englands book town" organisers said.

But some Dent locals didn't want to lose their local festival and so decided to organise their own to fill the void. And what a fine job they made of it. A true community festival combining beer and music - and all completely free. 

As they describe it: "Musicians have been coming to Dent for many years to enjoy the views, meet friends and enjoy the crack, so The Dent Folk Festival was born out of this initiative and continued to grow year on year until 2008, when it reached bursting point. This is why Dent has a new name for 2009 - Dentdale Music & Beer Festival, as the old committee and the name has moved several miles up the road to a brand new home / venture to accommodate the full growth potential it deserves - we wish them well!

"So here's to a brand new chapter in bringing great music to Dentdale."

The Dent Festival's Sedbergh campsite was packed by Friday evening. Camping at the new site generates additional income for the festival and allows some top performers to be booked. Kila and the FOS Brothers were sold out a month in advance. Others appearing include the legendry Andy Irving, Solas, Ade Edmundson and the Bad Shepherds, and Black Umfolosi.

Meanwhile back in Dent the line up was more modest but no less entertaining, with perfomers including Martin Stimpson, Last Orders, the Duncan McFarlane Band and Gordon Giltrap. The atmosphere was fantastic, campsites were heaving and getting a pint in the local pubs for the packed impromptu music sessions was proving to be a difficult task.

Both festivals look certain to be repeated next year. Can Sedbergh and Dent sustain two festivals? Judging by this weekend the answer seems to be an emphatic Yes.

See Previous Posting. See also Dentdale Music and Beer Festival site, and Dent Folk Festival site.

28 June 2009

Crisis for hill farmers could damage upland landscape

Hill farmers are facing a crisis as their incomes plummet and youngsters turn away from the hard, precarious lifestyle. And fears that a collapse Swaledales at the foot of the Howgill Fellsin hill farming will also damage the landscape were expressed to a new inquiry into the plight of upland communities, which begins preparing its final report this month.

"Without hill farmers, much of the beautiful British countryside which we take for granted could very quickly become unkempt, inaccessible and poorly maintained" said Tim Farron, MP for Westmorland and Lonsdale. "The average income of a hill farmer is around £8,000. Up to 85% have no one in place to take over the business when they retire."

Evidence given to the inquiry shows that the average net income for a hill farmer dropped from £17,459 in 2004 to £10,786 last year, a fall of 40%. The average age of hill farmers is 59 with over one in five already past retirement age. Changes in subsidies, designed to reduce overgrazing, have generally meant cuts in income for hill farmers. Many are selling up. The number of small farms in the Dales National Park area has halved since the mid 1950's.

The Inquiry into the future for England's upland communities will release an initial draft report in July with the final report going to the Prime Minister in September. The Inquiry has been held by the Commission for Rural Communities, created in 2005 to provide independent government advice.

Countryside Tsar Stuart Burgess, who chairs the Commission, set about visiting rural farms, pubs, homes and businesses. He was shocked by what he found and urged the government to initiate the inquiry, telling the Prime Minister: "I believe the future of our hill farming communities merits particular attention. There needs to be a stronger recognition that the management of these upland landscapes and environment has a real economic and social value, alongside the production of food and crops.".

Burgess, the former leader of the Methodist Church, was made a CBE in the Queens birthday Honours List this weekend.

Visit the website of The Commission for Rural Communities.

15 June 2009

Record turnout expected for Horse Fair

As the temperature soars Appleby is preparing for a huge turnout this week at the annual Horse Fair. Around 10,000 Gypsies and Travellers are expected, Horses are washed in the Eden at Appleby Horse Fair with another 30,000 visitors who come to enjoy the spectacle. All this in a town with a normal population of just 2,500.

The fair is based around Fair Hill, where some 1800 caravans will gather, and runs from this Thursday to next Wednesday, with the weekend being the busiest time.

The annual fair is run under a Royal Charter and has been held since at least 1750. It is not an organised event as such, just a traditional gathering of Romany and Irish families travelling to meet up with old friends, celebrate their culture and conduct business - particularly buying and selling horses. It is probably the biggest and oldest such gathering in Europe.

There's a definite touch of the wild west about the event but the anarchic atmosphere doesn't suit everyone's sensibilities.

Chief Superintendent Steve Johnson said he recognised the mixed emotions that the local community had about the fair and the police's responsibility to manage the potential for public disorder.

"It is also vital that we respect the traditions of the fair and make sure that we are sensitive to the gypsy and traveller cultures, which have been around far longer than our policing operation" he said.

An estimated 1500 horses will be sold over the six days. Sellers wash them in the River Eden and run them on the so-called Flashing Lane in front of potential buyers. This year the RSPCA has doubled the number of inspectors it has attending to 20.

The Horse Fair has been growing in popularity in recent years and the best way to visit is by train. The chances of booking accommodation in Appleby at this time are nil.

Find information about the fair here or click below for a flavour of the 2008 fair. 

2 June 2009

May 2009

Brigantes offer baggage service to A Dales High Way

Brigantes, one of the best known baggage couriers for walkers in the Yorkshire Dales and the north of England, have now added A Dales High A Brigantes van passes Ribblehead Way to the routes they cover. For a modest fee they will pick up and transfer your baggage from stop to stop, giving you the freedom to enjoy each day's walking carrying only a day bag.

They can also offer a full holiday service, arranging and booking accommodation for the entire walk.

Mike Schofield of Brigantes said; "We have already had quite a few enquiries regarding the Dales High Way, and indeed secured a number of bookings. From past experience we have found that new routes tend to take up to two years to become known, so for us to have even one booking for a new walk is good news. Everyone we have spoken to about the new walk has given a good opinion of it and we are sure it will prove to be popular."

A Dales High Way was launched as a new long distance route last September. Author Chris Grogan said: "A lot of people have asked us if any baggage couriers covered the route, so we are really pleased Brigantes have picked it up. They are a well known local company with a good reputation and I'm sure they will help make the walk a real experience to remember."

Brigantes have been in business transferring baggage and providing walking holiday packages for the main long distance routes in the north for twenty years. The Pennine Way, the Dales Way, the Coast to Coast, the Cleveland Way and the Inn Way walks are amongst the most popular. It looks like A Dales High Way is set to join them.

See The Brigantes website here

23 May 2009

National Park to take in final sections of A Dales High Way

Plans are being considered to extend the Yorkshire Dales National Park, to Walker and companion on the northern Howgill Fells take in areas such as the northern Howgill Fells and the Orton Fells - areas covered by the last stages of A Dales High Way.

Natural England, which is the government's statutory advisor on National Parks, is setting up a project team whose first job will be to undertake a public consultation on the proposals.

At present the northern boundary of the Dales National Park ends in the centre of the Howgill Fells, at the Calf. It has long been recognised that the northern fells and the Orton Fells beyond are outstanding landscapes but have never been designated. An alternative option is to classify these as Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Natural England had already started the process, but halted its designation work last year to await clarification of legal uncertainties that were being considered during the Public Inquiry into the South Downs National Park.

Other areas under consideration for inclusion in the Yorkshire Dales National Park include Mallerstang & Wild Boar Fell, parts of the Lune Valley, Firbank Fell, Middleton, Barbon & Leck Fells, and areas around Cold Cotes and Kirkby Lonsdale. Birkbeck Fells to Whinfell, Helsington Barrows to Sizergh, and an area around the River Kent will be considered as a variation to the Lake District National Park.

Poul Christensen of Natural England said: "I am delighted that our work in reviewing parts of the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales National Park boundaries can now continue. It is fitting that as we celebrate 60 years of National Parks - and all that they have achieved for people and wildlife - we now have a unique opportunity to look at a major expansion of two of England's most cherished protected areas."

See the Plan of the new proposed areas and Natural England's website.

6 May 2009

April 2009

Bingley Harrier triumphs at 55th Three Peaks Fell Race

Rob Jebb from the Bingley Harriers took first place on this year's Top 3 runners Ricky Lightfoot, Rob Jeb and Andy Peace lead up Pen-y-ghent. Photo - Julia Pearson.grueling Three Peaks Fell Race yesterday. Second spot went to Ricky Lightfoot of Ellenborough, with Karl Gray of Calder Valley taking third place.

This is the 55th outing for the mother-of-all Yorkshire fell races. 688 runners took part, with 50 places held for international competitors. The first 3 Peaks race in 1954 attracted just 6 entries. The first attempt to walk the 3 peaks was recorded in 1887.Runners approach Pen-y-ghent. Photo - Julia Pearson.

The race starts at Horton-in-Ribblesdale, with runners climbing Pen-y-ghent first, then crossing to Ribblehead to climb Whernside, before finally crossing Ingleborough to return to the start.

The route, at 23.3 miles, is slightly different from that taken by walkers, as is the completion time. Whilst walkers are considered to have done well if they cover the course in under 12 hours, the top runners finish in under 3 hours!

The record for the race is held by Jeff Norman, who finished in just under two and a half hours in 1974. The course has changed slightly since then. Bingley Harrier Andy Peace holds the record for the current course, finishing in 2 hours 46 minutes and 3 seconds in 1996.

A Hog Roast, skiffle band and beer tent provided the traditional finale to the event.

See the 3 Peaks Race Association site and check the results here.

26 April 2009

Falcons on view at Malham Cove

A special viewing point with telescopes has been set up at Malham Cove to give visitors the opportunity for a close-up view of the wild birds who The first of the 2008 peregrine falcon chicks to fledge. Photo by Neil Aldridge.nest there, including peregrine falcons.

It is the sixth year that the Dales National Park Authority and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds have organised the free Falcon Watch. Last year over 21,000 people took advantage of the high-powered telescopes and the experts on hand to view these magnificent birds of prey.

The watch will be open each day from 10.30 am to 4.30 pm, weather permitting. It will run from April 10th to August 30th. The viewpoint is located at the bottom of Malham Cove next to the public footpath.

Matthew Capper of the RSPB said: "We are hoping the Peregrines will be true to form and produce some young again this year."

During the 1950s the peregrine population in the UK declined dramatically due Falcon Watch view point at Malham Coveto the use of agricultural organochlorine pesticides. Following a complete ban of these pesticides, the peregrine population began to increase, and in 1978, the first pairs returned to the Yorkshire area of the National Park. Despite the large number of people that visit the Malham area each year, peregrines settled at the Cove and first bred in 1993. They have been present ever since.

As well as the peregrines, visitors to Malham can expect to see green woodpeckers, little owls, redstarts and cliff-nesting house martins.

Picture at top shows the first of the 2008 peregrine falcon chicks to fledge. Photo by Neil Aldridge.

Visit the National Park's Peregrine Falcon site.

14 April 2009

Loyal Ruswarp marks 20 years of campaign success

On April 11th a very special bronze statue will be unveiled to mark 20 years since the official reprieve from closure of the Settle-Carlisle railway line.

Graham Nuttall and Ruswarp with his paw print petition signature. Photo - Sunday MirrorRuswarp was the only dog to sign the petition against closure, but more importantly he was to become a symbol of courage and dedication that inspired campaigners and gained him the RSPCA Medallion for "Vigilance".

In the 1980's the scenic Settle-Carlisle railway was threatened with closure. Amongst campaigners who gathered to fight the closure, under the banner of "The Friends of the Settle-Carlisle Line" (FoSCL), was Graham Nuttall, a modest Lancashire man who became the first secretary of the the group. Graham loved to walk the fells with his faithful companion Ruswarp (pronounced Russup).

Shortly after the line's official reprieve, on January 20th 1990, Graham bought day return tickets from Burnley to Llandrindod Wells, to walk the Welsh mountains. When Graham didn't return his neighbours raised the alarm and police and mountain rescue teams in the Elan Valley and Rhayader went looking for him, but with no luck. 

Eleven weeks later, on April 7th, a lone walker found Graham's body by a mountain stream. Nearby was Ruswarp, who had loyaly remained besides Graham throughout those long, cold winter weeks. The 14 year old Border Collie was so weak he had to be carried from the mountain, where he was cared for by Graham's aunt and uncle.

Ruswarp survived just long enough to attend Graham's funeral. The RSPCA had been inundated with offers to re-home Ruswarp. 

The life-size bronze statue of Ruswarp will be unveiled at the newly restored Garsdale Station, one of Graham's favourite spots. A fitting symbol of the heroic battle to save England's most beautiful railway line.

See The story of the Ruswarp sculpture and details of the 20th anniversary celebrations.

30 March 2009

On a beautiful sunny Saturday morning, the life-size bronze statue of Ruswarp Chris and Jess pose with Ruswarpwas finally unveiled at Garsdale station. Hundreds turned out for the very moving ceremony, which marked both the 20th anniversary of the successful campaign to save the line from closure, and a £250,000 restoration of the isolated station. 

Network Rail's Route Director Jo Kaye said: “With the help of the Friends of the Settle Carlisle Line and the Settle Carlisle Railway Development Company to name just two, this line has gone from strength to strength."

Sculptress Joel Walker said: "After hearing the stories of the petition and the faithfulness of this remarkable dog, it was an honour to create and provide the bronze Ruswarp statue. This story and the scenery really inspired me."

Dogs and their owners posed for photos with Ruswarp, including our own Chris and Jess.

Update: 12 April 2009

March 2009

Holiday Eco-pod trials for Dales barns

Trials have begun on a new concept to allow temporary holiday homes to be created in disused field barns in the Yorkshire Dales.

The Eco-pod design for unused field barnsPlanners at the National Park have given the go-ahead for the temporary use of a free-standing 'eco-pod' inside an isolated barn on the Bolton Abbey estate near Skipton. For the next year, it will be occupied occasionally by experts from Bath-based architects Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios (FCBS) who will be testing its viability as a place to stay or work.

"Barns are one of the National Park's special qualities and, with around 2,000 now in 'poor' or 'very bad' condition, it is becoming imperative that we find ways of stopping them from deteriorating any further," said Gary Smith, the Park's Head of Conservation and Policy.

The free-standing pod is installed inside the barn, having no material impact on the fabric of the building. It can be removed at any time to leave the barn exactly as it was. All that is required is that the barn be made weatherproof - an essential step in any case for the barn's conservation.

If successful the eco-pods could be installed in barns across the Dales, with power, water and sewage services provided on a trailer towed into position by the farmer when required.

See the Feildbarn Project website.

16 March 2009

Dent Folk Festival moves to Sedbergh

Dent Folk Festival, judged by many to be one of the best in the country, is moving venues this year - to nearby Sedbergh.

Music and ale at the Dent Folk Festival. Photo: imageacoustic"After six years in Dentdale we have outgrown our original site and we are moving to a new venue, with on site camping, a few miles down the road. It’s an absolutely stunning site between the Howgill Fells and Wild Boar Fell just outside Sedbergh, England’s Book Town" said one of the organisers.

The new site is at Buck Bank Farm, just over a mile from Sedbergh. For the first year the festival will have on-site camping, plus a free regular shuttle bus link to the town.

"We're really pleased about this as many of our regulars have asked us over the years to run a festival campsite. By camping on the festival site you will be making a major contribution to the sustainability of the festival. The camping will be basic but comfortable. The site is in a fantastic setting and you'll be with a great crowd of other festival goers, so lots of potential for sessions and meeting people from all over the place with a shared passion for music."

This years artists include Andy Irving, Tony Wilson, Adrian Edmondson & the Bad Shepherds, Kila and Black Umfolosi from Zimbabwe. The festival runs from June 26th - 28th.

"We are very sad to leave Dentdale, but to see the festival come to an end after six years of dedicated hard work would be unthinkable to those involved in it. We've had to take difficult decisions and move on."

See the Dent Festival website for full details of the 2009 programme.

1 March 2009

February 2009

Green hydro scheme for Settle

Work is expected to start on a pioneering new green energy project in Settle this April. Craven Council finally gave the go-ahead last week for Bridge End Weir, Settlethe Settle Hydro project, a community-funded scheme to generate enough hydro-electricity to power 50 homes.

The £300,000 scheme, funded through a £100,000 community share issue with backing from Yorkshire Forward, Future Energy Yorkshire and the Co-op, will use an Archimedean Screw installed at the town's Bridge End Weir.

The proposed scheme was initially turned down by council planners in October last year, over concerns on the effect the scheme might have on the River Ribble's fish stock. Fishing is estimated to bring £11 million annually to the local economy. The Ribble is one of the most important migratory rivers for salmon and trout in Europe. In Autumn nearby Stainforth Force, on the route of A Dales High Way, is a popular spot for people to watch as the salmon struggle upstream to spawn.

However, after assurances from the Environment Agency that the needs of migrating fish would not be put at risk by the 50 kw hydro station, councillors voted to back the scheme.

Director of Settle Hydro Ann Harding said: “This is brilliant news and just the decision all our shareholders were hoping for. We’ve got a great scheme which will provide electricity for years to come at no cost to the planet. And what’s more, any surplus funds will be ploughed back into community projects. I’m hoping the hydro will be a great source of pride for Settle and I’m sure people will come from all over to see the project as it progresses”.

See the Settle Hydro website

21 February 2009

Big freeze takes toll

The unexpected February freeze - the coldest weather for 20 years, has taken it's toll with a number of walkers in this region injured in the icy Pen-y-ghent under snow conditions. 7 people have died so far walking on mountains in Scotland, Wales and the Lake District. 

One Bradford man was lucky to be rescued when he got lost climbing Great Whernside in Wharfedale. He was picked up after 11 hours in blizzard conditions suffering from frostbite and dehydration after he became disoriented. He had set out without a map or compass, but fortunately carried a mobile phone.

Alan Hudson explained: "I’ve been up there dozens of times in all weathers. Sometimes visibility has been really bad but I’ve always been able to see the path and knew exactly where I was.

“On this occasion the path got covered with snow and somehow I got off it. I tried to trace my footprints back up Great Whernside but they were covered. It was then I realised I was lost and phoned the police.”

A police spokesman said "Walkers should ensure that they have a mobile phone on their person, and that they tell their contacts their planned route and which vehicles they would have access to during this time."

Some sections of A Dales High Way cross areas which can be tricky in adverse weather conditions, such as the steep descent from Ingleborough to Humphrey Bottom which should be avoided in icy conditions.

Bearing in mind that in many remote areas a mobile phone signal may not be available it is vital to leave details of your route and expected time of arrival with someone, particularly if you, like many walkers, prefer to walk alone.

See The Ramblers advice for walkers and the Upper Wharfedale Fell Rescue Association.

11 February 2009

Blood, sweat and beers

The Time Team excavation of the Rise Hill shanty town, on the route of Time Team at Rise Hill the Settle-Carlisle railway, is to be screened on Sunday, February 1st at 5.35 pm on Channel 4. The programme will be shown again the following Saturday.

Presenter Tony Robinson and the Time Team spent three days with the Yorkshire Dales National Park's Senior Conservation Officer Robert White investigating the site of one of the construction camps set up to house the workers who built the railway.

The railway navvies - arguably the toughest and most lawless breed of the Victorian era - lived on site with their families and endured harsh conditions. Many perished through accident or disease and over 200 are buried at St Leonard's church in the tiny hamlet of Chapel-le-Dale, on the route of A Dales High Way.

The investigations centred on construction camp 2, which was a group of five huts that housed some of the workers and their families who built the Risehill Tunnel north of Dent Station - the second longest tunnel on the railway - between 1869 and 1875.

Occupations recorded in the 1871 census included a carpenter, two blacksmiths and stone masons as well as railway miners.

"Although we know a little bit about the construction of the Settle Carlisle Railway, we had very little knowledge of the actual process and the living conditions of the people who built it," Robert said.

"The Risehill camp was on top of a hill in the middle of a peat bog. The excavations showed just how harsh their living conditions were and helped give an idea of the scale of the machinery that was used to help build the tunnel."

See the previous story "Time Team excavate Dent shanty town". See also St Leonard's church, Chapel-le-Dale.

1 February 2009

January 2009

Gordale Scar access improved

The awesome splendour of Gordale Scar will soon be opened up to everyone thanks to a huge project to improve access through the gorge.

The waterfall at Gordale ScarWork by the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority, aided by volunteers, to resurface the path, improve drainage and clear away fallen scree is virtually finished and it should be ready for use by the end of the month.

“Although Gordale has always been more accessible than many areas in Malhamdale, the improvements will mean it will be much easier for everyone to reach the base of the waterfall,”  said Cat Kilner, the Park’s Area Ranger for Malhamdale and Lower Ribblesdale who has overseen the work.

“The path is often virtually washed out in heavy rain so we have improved the drainage to prevent this happening in the future. Another problem was that it was rather steep at one point so we have reduced the gradient there.

“We also have a problem with scree falling onto the path so we have organised a set of volunteers to regularly patrol the route and remove it – which means it should always be accessible.

“Gordale waterfall is a spectacular limestone feature with an apron of delicate tufa rock on its face that is created by calcium carbonate from the stream being deposited. It is only right that this area should be available for everyone to view.”

See more of Gordale Scar

20 January 2009

Brits head for great outdoors in 2009

As the credit crunch bites more people than ever are planning camping holidays at home this year. This is a trend that has grown over the last 3 years, despite the wet summers we've enjoyed recently.

The Old Hill Inn, Chaple-le-Dale, is a member of the Caravan ClubThe Caravan Club reports advanced bookings for 2009 up by 40% on 2008. Nick Lomas for the Caravan Club said, “We confidently predict that 2009 will be the year that welcomes the return of the great British holiday, something Caravan Club members have enjoyed for over a Century.”

In a recent report the Camping and Caravanning Club, the oldest such club in the world, said that 40% of new members who join do so as tent campers. This is a trend that has been steadily increasing for a number of years. What’s more, the average age of people camping with the club has dropped from 60 to 49.

Frances Tuke, a spokeswoman for the Association of British Travel Agents, said that UK holidaymakers are taking more traditional breaks than ever, also pointing out that so-called ‘posh camping’, or 'Glamping' has gained more fans recently.

There's not much chance of Glamping on the route of A Dales High Way, but Caravan Club members can pull up at spots such as the Old Hill Inn at Chapel-le-Dale, while wild campers can pitch behind the Station Inn at Ribblehead.

See the Caravan Club or the Camping and Caravanning Club websites, or check our own Camping itinerary here.

11 January 2009

Weather hots up for 2009

The global temperature for 2009 is likely to be 0.4 °C above the long term Hot days at Malham are more likely as global temperatures riseaverage, with an increased probability of record temperatures to follow, according to climate researchers.

2009 is expected to be one of the top-five warmest years on record, say scientists at the Met Office and the University of East Anglia. The ten warmest years on record have occurred since 1997.

Professor Chris Folland from the Met Office said: "Phenomena such as El Niño and La Niña have a significant influence on global surface temperature. Warmer conditions in 2009 are expected because the strong cooling influence of the recent powerful La Niña has given way to a weaker La Niña." During La Niña, cold waters rise to the surface to cool the ocean and land surface temperatures.

These cyclical influences can mask underlying warming trends as Professor Phil Jones, Director of the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Average global temperatures 1850 to 2007 Anglia, explained: "The fact that 2009, like 2008, will not break records does not mean that global warming has gone away. What matters is the underlying rate of warming - the period 2001-2007, with an average of 14.44 °C, was 0.21 °C warmer than corresponding values for the period 1991-2000."

The Met Office, in collaboration with the University of East Anglia, maintains a global temperature record which is used in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Each January they issue a forecast of the global surface temperature for the coming year. The forecast takes into account known contributing factors, such as El Niño and La Niña, increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, the cooling influences of industrial aerosol particles, solar effects and natural variations of the oceans.

See The Met Office and The University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit.

1 January 2009

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